Proposing a New Model of Knowledge Innovation for Research University Based on Entrepreneurial Paradigm

Ramlee Mustapha


ABSTRACT: The emergent entrepreneurial paradigm has led to the increasing role of the research university in knowledge innovation, hence making entrepreneurial research university a global phenomenon. Research universities are expected to provide intellectual innovations for the economic and societal advancement. It is argued that to ensure an effective achievement of research university’s objectives, appropriate definition and model must be identified. This article attempts to propose a generic model of knowledge innovation for the research university. It identifies the definitions of the research university, knowledge innovation, and best practices of the established research universities. It then looks into the process of knowledge creation and innovation in research universities. Based on the review of literature, this article proposes a model of knowledge innovation for the research university by integrating knowledge innovation framework and the simplified Triple Helix Model. The focus of this article, however, is on the knowledge innovation. Knowledge innovation is most relevant in the context of research university. Literature also indicates that there are two forms of innovation, namely, incremental and radical innovations.

KEY WORDS: knowledge innovation, research university, Triple Helix Model, and entrepreneurial paradigm.

About the Author: Professor Dr. Ramlee B. Mustapha is a Lecturer at the Faculty of Education UKM (National University of Malaysia); and also as the Director of the Centre of Excellence for Learner Diversity (CELD) at the Faculty of Education UKM, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. He can be reached at:

How to cite this article? Mustapha, Ramlee B. (2010). “Proposing a New Model of Knowledge Innovation for Research University Based on Entrepreneurial Paradigm” in EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies, Vol.2(2) February, pp.111-130. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI in Bandung, West Java; and FKIP UMP in Purwokerto, Central Java, ISSN 1979-7877.

Chronicle of the article: Accepted (December 15, 2009); Revised (January 25, 2010); and Published (February 17, 2010).

Full Text:



Anselin, L., A. Varga & Z. Acs. (2000). “Geographic and Sectoral Characteristics of Academic Knowledge Externalities” in Papers in Regional Science, Vol.79, pp.435-443.

Atkinson, R.C. (1999). “The Future Arrives First in California” in Issues in Science and Technology, Winter [1999-2000]. Available also at [accessed in Bangi: 10 November 2009].

Atkinson, R.C. (2004). “Academic Freedom and the Research University” in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol.148, No.2, pp.195-204.

Bank Boston. (1997). MIT: The Impact of Innovation. Boston: Bank Boston.

Bayoumi, T., D.T. Coe & E. Helpman. (1996). R&D Spillovers and Global Growth. Cambridge: NBER, MA.

Bower, D.J. (1992). Company and Campus Partnership. London: Routledge.

Branscomb, L. et al. (1992). Beyond Spin-off: Military and Commercial Technologies in a Changing World. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Carayannis, E.G. et al. (1998). “High-Technology Spin-offs from Government R&D Laboratories and Research Universities” in Technovation, Vol.1, pp.1-11.

Christensen, C.M. (1997). The Innovators Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Chuanqi, H. (1998). “From Innovation to Knowledge Innovation”. Available also at [accessed in Bangi: 10 November 2009].

Chung, S. (2001). “Forum on the Roles of Research University in Knowledge-based Economy”. Paper presented in Tsinghua University, Beijing, China: April, 28-29.

Cohen, W., R. Nelson & J. Walsh. (2002). “Links and Impacts: The Influence of Public Research on Industrial R&D” in Management Science, Vol.48, No.1, pp.1-23.

Cowan, R. & N. Jonard. (1999). “Network Structure and the Diffusion of Knowledge”. Available also at [accessed in Bangi: 10 November 2009].

Cowan, R., N. Jonard & J. Zimmermann. (2004). Evolving Networks of Inventors. Maastricht: MERIT-Infonomics Research Memorandum Series.

Coward, L.A. (1990). Pattern Thinking. Westport, CT: Preager.

Crawford, C. (1992). “The Hidden Costs of Accelerated Product Development” in Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol.9, pp.188-199.

Damarest, M. (1997). “Understanding Knowledge Management” in Journal of Long Range Planning, Vol.30, No.3, pp.374-384.

Davenport, S., A. Carr & D. Bibby. (2002). “Leveraging Talent: Spin-off Strategy at Industrial Research” in R&D Management, Vol.32, No.3, pp.241-254.

Davenport, T.H., D.W. De Long & M. Beers. (1998). “Successful Knowledge Management Prospects” in Sloan Management Review, Vol.39, No.2, pp.43-57.

Delanty, G. (2003). “Ideologies of the Knowledge Society and the Cultural Contradictions of Higher Education” in Policy Futures in Education, Vol.1, No.1, pp.71-82.

Doyle, P. & J. Saunders. (1985). “The Lead Effect of Marketing Decisions” in Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.22, pp.54-65.

Drucker, P. (1993). Post Capitalist Society. New York: Harper Row.

Eisenhardt, K. & B. Tabrizi. (1995). “Accelerating Adaptive Processes: Product Innovation in the Global Computer Industry” in Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.40, pp.84-110.

Eliasson, G. (1996). Firm Objectives, Control and Organization: The Use of Information and the Transfer of Knowledge within the Firm. Dordrecht/London: Kluwer Acadamic Publisher.

Eliasson, G. & A. Eliasson. (1996). “The Biotechnological Competence Block” in Revnue d’Economie Industrielle, Vol.78, No.4, pp.7-26.

Etzkowitz, H. (2004). “The Evolution of Entrepreneurial University” in International Journal of Technology and Globalisation, Vol.1, No.1, pp.64-77.

Etzkowitz, H. & L. Leydesdorff [eds]. (1997). Universities in the Global Economy: A Triple Helix of University Industry Government Relations. London: Cassell.

Etzkowitz, H. et al. (2000). “The Future of the University and the University of the Future: Evolution of Ivory tower to Entrepreneurial Paradigm” in Research Policy, Vol.29, pp.313-330.

Etzkowitz, H., A. Webster & P. Henley. (1998). Capitalizing Knowledge: New Intersections of Industry and Academia. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Fassin, Y. (1991). “Academic Ethos versus Business Ethics” in International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 6, No. 5/6, pp.533-546.

Freeman, C. (1992). “Innovation, Changes of Techno-economic Paradigm and Biology Analogies in Economics” in Christopher Freeman [ed]. The Economics of Hope: Essays on Technical Change, Economic Growth and the Environment. New York: Pinter Publishers.

Gomory, R. (1992). “The Technology-product Relationship: Early and Late Stages” in Nathan Rosenberg, Ralph Landau & David Mowery [eds]. Technology and the Wealth of Nations. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Graversen, E.K. & M. Mark. (2005). “The Effect of R&D Capital on Firm Productivity”. Working paper for the Danish Centre for Studies in Research and Research Policy.

Gray, H.H. (2001). “The University in History: 1088 and All That”. Paper presented at the Idea of the University Colloquium, University of Chicago [17 January].

Griliches, Z. (1992). “The Search for R&D Spillovers” in Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol.94, pp.29-47.

Guellec, D. & B. Van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie. (2004). “From R&D to Productivity Growth: Do the Institutional Settings and the Source of Funds of R&D Matter?” in Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Vol.66, No.3, pp.353-378.

Hall, Z. & C. Scott. (2001). “University-Industry Partnership” in Science, Vol.291, No.5504, pp.531-553.

Hernes, G. & M. Martin. (2000). Management of University-Industry Linkages. Paris: International Institute of Educational Planning.

Holton, G. & G. Sonnert. (1999). “A Vision of Jeffersonian Science” in Issues in Science and Technology Online. Available also at [accessed in Bangi: 10 November 2009]. [accessed in Bangi: 10 November 2009]. [accessed in Bangi: 10 November 2009].

Kessler, E. & P. Bierly. (2002). “Is Faster Really Better? An Empirical Test of the Implications of Innovation Speed” in IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol.49, No.1, pp.2-12.

Kline, S. (1985). “Innovation is Not a Linear Process” in Research Management, Vol.28 [July-August], pp.36-45.

Kline, S. & N. Rosenberg. (1986). “An Overview of Innovation” in Ralph Landau & Nathan Rosenberg [eds]. The Positive Sum Strategy: Harnessing Technology for Economic Growth. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Leahy, D. & J.P. Neary. (2004). “Absorptive Capacity, R&D Spillovers, and Public Policy”. Available also at [accessed in Bangi: 10 November 2009].

Leydesdorff, L. & H. Etzkowitz. (1996). “The Future Location of Research: A Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations II” in EASST Review, Vol.15, No.4, pp.1-8.

Lieberman, M. & D. Montgomery. (1988). “First Mover Advantages” in Strategic Management Journal, Vol.9, pp.41-58.

Lotz, P. (2004). “Limits to Control?”. Paper presented at the DRUID Summer Conference on Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development. Denmark: Elsinore [June, 14-16].

Lundvall, B. (1992). National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning. London: Pinter.

Lyotard, J. (1979). The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Translated by Bennington & Massumi [1984]. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Mahdjoubi, D. (1997). “Non-linear Models of Technology Innovation”. Available also at [accessed in Bangi: 10 November 2009].

Niininen, P. (2000). “Effect of Publicly and Privately Financed R&D on Total Factor Productivity Growth” in Finish Economic Papers, Vol.13, No.1, pp.56-68.

OECD. (1993). The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities: Standard Practice for Surveys of Research and Experimental Development. Paris: OECD.

OECD. (1998). University Research in Transition. Paris: OECD.

OECD. (2000). Knowledge Management in the Learning Society: Education and Skills. Paris: OECD.

O’Hare, R. & P. Pitney. (2002). “The Economic Impact of Higher Education”. A White Paper presented to review the economic impact of higher education and the University of Alaska System, [July 16], University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

Paquet, G. (1997). “Evolutionary Cognitive Economics”. Unpublished Paper. Available also at〈=ce&embed=publications/97-52.pdf [accessed in Bangi: 10 November 2009].

Pelikan, J. (1992). The Idea of the University: A Re-Examination. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Piergiovanni, R. & E. Santarelli. (2001). “Patents and the Geographic Localization of R&D Spillovers in French Manufacturing” in Regional Studies, Vol.35, No.8, pp.697-702.

Premus, R. (2002). “Moving Technology from Labs to Market: A Policy Perspective” in International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, Vol.1, No.1/2, pp.22-39.

Readings, B. (1996). The University in Ruin. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Roberts, E.B. (1991). Entrepreneurs in High Technology: Lessons from MIT and Beyond. New York: Oxford University Press.

Roberts, E.B. & D.E. Malone. (1996). “Policies and Structures for Spinning-off New Companies from Research and Development Organizations” in R&D Management, Vol.26, Issue 1, pp.17-48.

Rogers, E.M. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations. New York: The Free Press, 4th edition.

Rogers, E.M. & J.K. Larsen. (1984). Silicon Valley Fever. New York: Basic Books.

Rogers, E.M., S. Takegami & J. Yin. (2001). “Lessons Learned about Technology Transfer” in Technovation, Vol.21, No.4, pp.253-261.

Rolnick, A. & R. Grunewald. (2001). “The University of Minnesota as a Public Good”. Paper presented at the University’s Contribution to Minnesota’s Economic, Social and Cultural Vitality [August, 23]. Available also at [accessed in Bangi: 10 November 2009].

Romer, P. (1986). “Increasing Returns and Long Run Growth” in Journal of Political Economy, Vol.94, pp.1002-1037.

Romer, P. (1990). “Endogenous Technological Change” in Journal of Political Economy, Vol.98, pp.71-102.

Rowley, J. (2000). “Is Higher Education Ready for Knowledge Management?” in International Journal of Education Management, Vol.14, No.7, pp.325-333.

Sample, S.B. (2002). “The Research University of the 21st Century: What will it Look Like?”. Keynote Address to the 23rd Army Science Conference, Orlando, Florida [December, 2].

Santoro, M. & A. Chakrabarti. (1999). “Building Industry-University Research Centers: Some Strategic Considerations” in International Journal of Management Reviews, Vol.1, No.3, pp.225-244.

Schumpeter, J. (1911). Theorie der Wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. Translated in 1934 by Duncker & Humblot become The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Schumpeter, J. (1943). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London: Allen & Unwin.

Shenhar, A.J. (1993). “The PROMIS Project: Industry and University Learning Together” in International Journal of Technology Management, Vol.8, No.6/7/8, pp.611-621.

Shumar, W. (1997). College for Sale: A Critique of the Commodification of Higher Education. Washington, DC: The Falmer Press.

Solow, R. (1956). “A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth” in Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol.70, pp.65-94.

Solow, R. (1957). “Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function” in Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol.39, pp.312-320.

Steffensen, M., E.M. Rogers & K. Speakman. (2000). “Spin-offs from Research Centers at a Research University: A Communication Perspective” in Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.15, No.1, pp.93-111.

Thomond, P. & F. Lettice. (2002). “Disruptive Innovation Explored”. Paper presented at the 9th IPSE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications, at the Cranfield University, UK.

Tucker, R.B. (2002). Driving Growth Through Innovation. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

Tushman, M. & P. Anderson. (1986). “Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments” in Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.31, pp.439-465.

Utterback, J. (1994). Mastering: The Dynamics of Innovation. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Valery, N. (1999). “Survey of Innovation in Industry: Industry Gets Religion” in The Economist, February, 20.

Veryzer, R.W. (2005). “The Roles of Marketing and Industrial Design in Discontinuous New Product Development” in The Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol.22, pp.22-41.

Wallenburg, J. (2004). Genomics, Health and Society: Emerging Issues for Public Policy. Canada: Symposium Report, Policy Research Initiative.

Wisconsin Technology Council. (2004). “The Economic Value of Academic Research and Development in Wisconsin”. Available also at [accessed in Bangi: 10 November 2009].

Ziman, J. (1991). “A Neural Net Model of Innovation” in Science and Public Policy, Vol.18, No.1, pp.65-75.

Ziman, J. (2000). Technological Innovation as an Evolutionary Process. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 EDUCARE

Lisensi Creative Commons

EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies. Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional

View My Stats