The Experiences with Qualitative Validity in a Classroom Research: Issues Pertaining to Value Claims

Chinedu I.O. Okeke


ABSTRACT: In this paper, the writer calls into question the yet to be resolved epistemological issues about the way researchers make value claims in support of the authenticity of their research discoveries. The writer offers recognition to existing paradigmatic duality as a necessity for the third wave expressed by proponents of triangulation. Such dichotomy offers room for continuous divergence of opinions on the ways researchers perceive the empirical social world. The paper supports on-going argument that any discussion of the criteria for judging social and educational research findings must confront the issue of relativism. This position resonates through the writer’s encounter and experience with qualitative validity during a classroom study. The conclusion drawn through this encounter is that a research design is not made valid or reliable by the user’s ability to apply many verbose or exoteric terms. Instead such claim is made by the meanings, which the designs and the final report make to those for whom the study is conducted in terms of policy and practice.     

KEY WORDS: epistemology, quantitative methods, qualitative research, validity, reliability, and generalisability.

About the Author: Dr. Chinedu I.O. Okeke is a Lecturer at the Department of Educational Foundations and Management UNISWA (University of Swaziland) in Africa. His contact address is Department of Educational Foundations and Management, University of Swaziland, Private Bag 4 Kwaluseni, Swaziland M201. His e-mail addresses are: and

How to cite this article? Okeke, Chinedu I.O. (2009). “The Experiences with Qualitative Validity in a Classroom Research: Issues Pertaining to Value Claims” in EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies, Vol.2(1) August, pp.1-16. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI in Bandung, West Java; and FKIP UMP in Purwokerto, Central Java, ISSN 1979-7877.

Chronicle of the article: Accepted (June 17, 2009); Revised (July 17, 2009); and Published (August 17, 2009).

Full Text:



Brink, H. (1991). “Quantitative and Qualitative Research” in Nursing RSA Verpleging, 6(1), pp.14-18.

Brock-Utne, B. (1998). Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research within Education in Africa. Oslo: Institute for Educational Research.

Bryman, A. & E. Bell. (2007). Business Research Methods. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.

Carney, J.H., J.F. Joiner & H. Tragou. (1997). “Categorizing, Coding and Manipulating Qualitative Data Using the Word-Perfect Word Processor” in The Qualitative Report, 3(1). Retrieved from [8 December 2001].

Carr, L.T. (1994). “The Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantitative and Qualitative Research: What Method for Nursing?” in Journal of Advanced Nursing, (20), pp.716-721.

Chenail, R.J. (1995). “Presenting Qualitative Data” in The Qualitative Report, Vol.2(3). Retrieved from: [20 January 2002].

Creswell, J.W. & D.L. Miller. (2000). “Determining Validity in Qualitative Research” in Theory into Practice, 39(3), pp.124-131.

Cresswell, J.W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. London: Sage Publications, pp.119-141.

Elliott, H. (1997). “The Use of Diaries in Sociological Research on Health Experience” in Sociological Research Online, Vol.2(2). Retrieved from: [3 March 2008].

Gill, C. (1998). “The Interaction of Gender, Class and Place in Women’s Experience: A Discussion Based in Focus Group Discussion Research” in Sociological Research Online, Vol.3(3). Retrieved from: [20 January 2002].

Glesne, C. & A. Peshkin. (1992). Becoming Qualitative Researchers: An Introduction. New York: Longman.

Golafshani, N. (2003). “Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research” in The Qualitative Report, 8(4), pp.597-606. Retrieved from: [22 September 2008].

Greenhalgh, T. & R. Taylor. (1997). “How to Read a Paper: Papers that Go Beyond Numbers” in BJM, (315), pp.740-743.

Gwinn, R.P., P.B. Norton & P.W. Goetz. (1987). “Neo-Kantians” in The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol.22. China: Grolier Incorporated, pp.491-499.

Haack, S. (1995). “Pragmatism” in The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol.22. China: Grolier Incorporated, pp.514-515.

Hammersley, M. (1989). The Dilemma of Qualitative Method: Herbert Blumer and the Chicago Tradition. London: Routledge.

Henning, E. (2004). Finding Your Way in Qualitative Research. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, pp.12-29.

Horn, J. (1998). “Qualitative Research: A Bibliographic Essay” in Library Trends, Vol.46(4), pp.602-611.

Hupcey, J. (2002). “Maintaining Validity: The Development of the Concept of Trust” in International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 1(4). Retrieved from: [20 September 2008].

Jones, I. (1997). “Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Sports Fan Research” in The Qualitative Report, Vol.3(4). Retrieved from [7 January 2008].

Liebscher, P. (1998). “Quantity with Quality? Teaching Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in an LIS Masters Program” in Library Trends, Vol.26(4), pp.668-679.

McCotter, S.S. (2001). “The Journey of a Beginning Researcher” in The Qualitative Report, 6(2). Retrieved December 20, 2007 from [20 December 2007].

Mennell, S. (1977). Sociological Theories: Uses and Unities. Great Britain: Thomas Nelson.

Morse, J.M. et al. (2002). “Verification Strategies for Establishing Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research” in International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 1(2), pp.1-19. Retrieved from [20 September 2008].

Murzi, M. (2001). “Logical Positivism” in The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from: [15 June 2004].

Ohuche, R.O. & M. Anyanwu [eds]. (1990). Perspectives in Educational and National Development. Onitsha: Summer Educational Publishers.

Okeke, C.O. & T.A. Ume. (2004a). “The Inappropriateness of the Use of Statistical Tools in the Analysis of Fieldwork Data: Implications for Adult Education Administrators” in Journal of Adult Education and Development (JAED), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 2(2), pp.164-172.

Okeke, C.O. & T.A. Ume. (2004b). “Some Epistemological Issues in the Conduct of Social and Behavioural Studies in the Faculty of Education of Nigerian Universities” in The Qualitative Report, 9(2), pp.320-334. Available at

Okolocha, C.F., C.O. Nwanunobi & E.U. Igbo. (1999). Introductory Sociology. Lagos: Acquitas.

Osuala, E.C. (2001). Introduction to Research Methodology. Nigeria: Africana-FEP Publishers Ltd.

Ritzer, G. (1996). Sociological Theory. London: McGraw-Hill.

Rolfe, G. (2006). “Validity, Trustworthiness and Rigour: Quality and the Idea of Qualitative Research” in Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53(3), pp.304-310.

Smaling, A. (2003). “Inductive, Analogical and Communicative Generalization” in International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 1(2). Retrieved from: [30 June 2004].

Smith, J.K. & D.K. Deemer. (2003). “The Problem of Criteria in the Age of Relativism” in N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln [eds]. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. London: Sage Publications, 2nd edition, pp.427-457.

Tellis, W. (1997). “Application of a Case Study Methodology” in The Qualitative Report, Vol.3(3). Retrieved from: [20 November 2001].

Trochim, M.W.K. (2002). “Qualitative Validity”. Retrieved from: [15 August 2008].

Turner, W.G. (2001). “Our New Children: The Surrogate Role of Companion Animals in Women’s Lives” in The Qualitative Report, 6(1). Retrieved from: [31 October 2003].

Turnock, C. & V. Gibson. (2001). “Validity in Action Research: A Discussion on Theoretical and Practice Issues Encountered Whilst Using Observation to Collect Data” in Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(3), pp.471-477.

Wainwright, D. (1997). “Can Sociological Research be Qualitative, Critical and Valid?” in The Qualitative Report, 3(2). Retrieved from: [8 December 2001].

Ward, B. (1999). “The Edited Topical Life History: Its Value and Use as a Research Tool” in Education Research and Perspectives, 26(2), pp.61-72.

Wildy, H. (1999). “Statuses, Lenses and Crystals: Looking at Qualitative Research” in Education Research and Perspective, Vol.26(2).

Winter, G. (2000). “A Comparative Discussion of the Notion of Validity in Qualitative and Quantitative Research” in The Qualitative Report, 4(3&4). Retrieved from: [10 December 2001].




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 EDUCARE

Lisensi Creative Commons

EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies. Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional

View My Stats