Approximate Behaviors as Cues for Addressing Learning Needs

Jose M Ocampo, Jr., Laura V Ocampo


ABSTRACT: The behavior of learners can serve as cue, so that teachers would make the necessary adjustments in handling the class. However, when this behavior becomes intolerable, some people call it misbehavior. In this light, behavior which is usually recognized as distressing can be viewed with optimism. Too much hand and body movement of children inside or outside classroom can be viewed as indicating a favorable need for action, a call for alternative process to achieve learning. This study attempted to present an alternative view of first grade learners’ behavior during reading sessions in class. For gathering of data, a checklist was used to observe one participant-learner every scheduled reading class. The first grade learners’ reading difficulties can be manifested through various behaviors. These behaviors are grouped and can be observed on four areas, such as head, arm-hand, shoulder-waist, and waist-foot. The approximate behaviors as cues for addressing learning needs have similar postures found in brain gym movements. It is recommended that other areas of learning difficulty among school learners be explored. Further, identify the learning difficulties in reading and the behaviors of school learners using the checklist constructed by the researchers.

KEY WORD: Behavior; Cues for Learning Needs; Learning Difficulty; Brain Gym Movements. 

ABSTRAKSI: “Perkiraan Perilaku sebagai Isyarat untuk Mengatasi Kebutuhan Belajar”. Perilaku peserta didik dapat dijadikan isyarat, sehingga guru dapat melakukan penyesuaian yang diperlukan dalam penanganan kelas. Namun, bila perilaku ini menjadi tidak tertahankan, beberapa orang menyebutnya perilaku salah. Dalam hal ini, perilaku yang biasanya dikenali sebagai hal yang menyedihkan dapat dilihat dengan optimisme. Terlalu banyak gerakan tangan dan tubuh anak-anak di dalam atau di luar kelas dapat dipandang sebagai indikasi kebutuhan tindakan yang baik, sebuah panggilan dalam proses alternatif untuk mencapai pembelajaran. Penelitian ini mencoba menyajikan pandangan alternatif tentang perilaku peserta didik di kelas satu selama sesi membaca di kelas. Untuk pengumpulan data, daftar isian ceklis digunakan dalam mengamati satu peserta didik di setiap kelas pembacaan yang dijadwalkan. Kesulitan membaca peserta didik kelas satu dapat diwujudkan melalui berbagai perilaku. Perilaku ini dikelompokkan dan dapat diamati pada empat bidang, seperti kepala, lengan-tangan, bahu-pinggang, dan pinggang-kaki. Perkiraan perilaku sebagai isyarat untuk mengatasi kebutuhan belajar memiliki postur tubuh serupa yang ditemukan pada gerakan asah otak. Disarankan agar daerah lain yang mengalami kesulitan belajar di antara siswa sekolah dapat dieksplorasi. Selanjutnya, identifikasi kesulitan belajar membaca dan perilaku pelajar sekolah menggunakan daftar isian ceklis yang disusun oleh para peneliti.

KATA KUNCI: Perilaku; Isyarat untuk Kebutuhan Belajar; Kesulitan Belajar; Gerakan Asah Otak.


About the Authors: Jose M. Ocampo, Jr., Ph.D. is a Full Professor at the Faculty of Education Sciences PNU (Philippine Normal University) in Manila, Philippines. Laura V. Ocampo, M.A. is a Science Grade School Teacher at the Claret School of Quezon City, Philippines. For academic interests, the authors are able to be contacted via e-mails at: and

Suggested Citation: Ocampo, Jr., Jose M. & Laura V. Ocampo. (2018). “Approximate Behaviors as Cues for Addressing Learning Needs” in MIMBAR PENDIDIKAN: Jurnal Indonesia untuk Kajian Pendidikan, Volume 3(1), March, pp.1-10. Bandung, Indonesia: UPI [Indonesia University of Education] Press, ISSN 2527-3868 (print) and 2503-457X (online).

Article Timeline: Accepted (February 8, 2018); Revised (March 11, 2018); and Published (March 30, 2018).


Behavior; Cues for Learning Needs; Learning Difficulty; Brain Gym Movements

Full Text:



ADB [Asian Development Bank]. (2015). “Brain Drain versus Brain Gain: The Study of Remittances in Southeast Asia and Promoting Knowledge Exchange through Diasporas”. Available online at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: January 7, 2017].

Coburn, C.E. (2006). “Framing the Problem of Reading Instruction: Using Frame Analysis to Uncover the Microprocesses of Policy Implementation” in American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), pp.343-379.

Dennison, P.E. & G.E. Dennison. (1994). Brain Gym: Teacher’s Edition. Ventura, CA: Edu-Kinesthetics, Inc., revised edition.

Dennison, P.E. & G.E. Dennison. (2010). Brain Gym. Ventura, CA: Edu-Kinesthetics, Inc.

Dexter, T. (1999). “Relationships between Sport Knowledge, Sport Performance, and Academic Ability: Empirical Evidence from GCSE Physical Education” in Jounal of Sports Sciences, Volume 17(4), pp.283-295.

Driscoll, Dana Lynn. (2011). “Introduction to Primary Research: Observations, Surveys, and Interviews” in Charles Lowe & Pavel Zemliansky [eds]. Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 2. USA [United States of America]: Parlor Press.

Dunlosky, John et al. (2013). “Improving Students’ Learning with Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions from Cognitive and Educational Psychology” in Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14(1). Available online also at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: August 5, 2017].

Feldman, D. et al. (2003). “Is physical Activity Differentially Associated with Different Types of Sedentary Pursuits?” in Arch. Pediatr. Adoles. Med., Vol.157, pp.797-802.

Fergusson, D.M., J.M. Boden & L.J. Horwood. (2010). “Classification of Behavior Disorders in Adolescence: Scaling Methods, Predictive Validity, and Gender Differences” in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, pp.699-712.

Fischer, K. (2010). “The Future of Neuroscience” in Mind, Brain, and Education, Vol.4, No.2, pp.68-80.

Fletcher-Campbell, F., J. Soler & G. Reid. (2009). Approaching Difficulties in Literacy Development: Assessment, Pedagogy, and Programmes. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.

Formosa, P. (2009). Fraid Not! Empowering Kids with Learning Differences. New York and Bloomington: i-Universe, Inc.

Gibbs, Karen L. (2007). “Study Regarding the Effects of Brain Gym on Student Learning” in Education and Human Development Master's Theses, 413. Available online also at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: January 7, 2017].

Hannaford, C. (1997). The Dominance Factor. Utah: Great River Books.

Hughes, Denise et al. (2009). Best Practices for Physical Activity: A Guide to Help Children Grow Up Healthy for Organizations Serving Children and Youth. Florida: The Nemours Foundation. Available online also at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: January 7, 2017].

Kavale, K.A. (2007). “Quantitative Research Synthesis: Meta-Analysis of Research on Meeting Special Education Needs” in L. Florian [ed]. The SAGE Handbook of Special Education. London: Sage Publications, pp.207-221.

Klein, P. (1999). “Reopening Inquiry into Cognitive Processes in Writing-to-Learn” in Educational Psychology Review, Vol.11, pp.203-270.

Koestner, C. (2000). “A Summary of a Brain Gym Research Project on Reading” in Brain Gym Journal, Issue of December. Available online also at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: August 5, 2017].

Koester, C. & G. Dennison. (2010). I am the Child: Using Brain Gym with Children Who Have Special Needs. Ventura, California: Edu-Kinetics, Inc.

Mahar, M. et al. (2006). “Effects of a Classroom-Based Program on Physical Activity and On-Task Beahavior” in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, pp.2086-2094.

Maskell, B., D.R. Shapiro & C. Ridley. (2004). “Effects of Brain Gym on Overhand Throwing in First Grade Students: A Preliminary Investigation” in Physical Educator. Late Winter. Available online also at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: August 1, 2017].

McCall, L. (2012). “Brain-Based Pedagogy in Today’s Diverse Classrooms: A Perfect Fit – But Be Careful!” in The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, on Professional Development.

Miles, M. & M. Huberman. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2nd edition.

Moore, H. & F. Hibbert. (2005). “Mind Boggling! Considering the Possibilities of Brain Gym in Learning to Play an Instrument” in British Journal of Music Education. Available online also at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: August 1, 2017].

Ocampo, Jr., Jose M. (2015a). “Children’s Reading Difficulty and Their Perceived Misbehavior” in SIPATAHOENAN: South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education, Volume 1(2), October, pp.199-208. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press, APAKSI Bandung, and KEMENPORA RI Jakarta, ISSN 2407-7348.

Ocampo, Jr., Jose M. (2015b). “Identification and Reduction of Children’s Learning Difficulty and Their Misconstrued Misbehavior”. Paper presented in the Hawaii University International Conferences, S.T.E.A.M. & education, on June 13-15, at Ala Moana Hotel, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA [United States of America]. Available online also at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: August 1, 2017].

Ocampo, Jr., Jose M., Leonora P. Varela & Laura V. Ocampo. (2017). “Effectiveness of Brain Gym Activities in Enhancing Writing Performance of Grade I Pupils” in SOSIOHUMANIKA: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, Volume 10(2), November, pp.179-190. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press and UNIPA Surabaya, ISSN 1979-0112.

Otto, Michael W. & Stefan G. Hofmann [eds]. (2010). Avoiding Treatment Failures in the Anxiety Disorders. New York: Spinger. Available online also at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: August 1, 2017].

Reynolds, D., R. Nicolson & H. Hambly. (2003). “Evaluation of an Exercise-Based Treatment for Children with Reading Difficulties” in Dyslexia, 9, pp.48-71.

Sarivaara, E. (2018). “Transformational Elements for Learning Outdoors in Finland: A Review of Research Literature” in International Journal of Research Studies in Education, Volume 7, Number 3, pp.73-84.

Shadish, W.R., T.D. Cook & D.T. Campbell. (2002). Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Sibley, B. & J. Etnier. (2003). “The Relationship between Physical Activity and Cognition in Children: A Meta-Analysis” in Pediat. Exercise Sci., Vol.15, pp.243-256.

Spaulding, L., M. Mostert & A.P. Beam. (2010). “Is Brain Gym® an Effective Educational Intervention?” in Exceptionality, Volume 18(1). Available online also at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: December 3, 2017].

Stephenson, J. (2009). “Best Practice? Advice Provided to Teachers about the Use of Brain Gym® in Australian Schools” in Australian Journal of Education, Vol.53, No.2, pp.109-124.

Tambychick, T. (2010). “Students’ Difficulties in Mathematics Problem-Solving: What Do They Say?” in PROCEDIA: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 8, pp.142-151. Available online also at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: 26th August 2017].

Tokuhama-Espinosa, T. (2010). Mind, Brain, and Education Science: The New Brain-Based Learning. New York: W.W. Norton.

Ulrich, D.A. & C.B. Sanford. (2000). Test of Gross Motor Development Examiner's Manual. Austin, TX: Pro-ed, 2nd edition.

Uusiautti, S. & K. Maatta. (2016). The Basics of Caring Research. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Available online also at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: December 12, 2017].

Watson, A. & G. Kelso. (2014). “The Effect of Brain Gym on Academic Engagement for Children with Developmental Disabilities” in International Journal of Special Education, pp.1-9. Available online also at: [accessed in Manila, Philippines: 17th March 2017].




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
MIMBAR PENDIDIKAN: Jurnal Indonesia untuk Kajian Pendidikan. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

View My Stats