Non-Verbal Language in the Stories of Al-Qur'an

Asep Sopian

Abstract


ABSTRACT: Language, if seen from the aspect of how the disclosure, can be categorized into two, namely: verbal and non-verbal languages. Theoretically, both types can be separated. But, in reality, they cannot be separated, even always together and is a combination. It is interesting to note here that the stories in the Al-Qur'an are very rich in expressions of non-verbal communication. Among the stories enshrined in the Al-Qur'an is the Prophet Joseph’s story. In the story, there is variety of non-verbal language expressions, especially those related to kinesics language, both postural and gestural. The theme of the story is very interesting and studied through content analysis research with semiotic approach. This article used the qualitative approach. The approach used is analytical descriptive approach. While, based on the object of study and orientation to be achieved, this research used also the library research or literature review. The findings show that all kinesics languages in phrases – pertaining the Prophet Joseph’s story in the Al-Qur'an – are full of meaning, charm, beauty, dynamic, and have deep context and impression. Each type of kinesics languages has certain functions and meanings in the Prophet Joseph’s story, such as “al-badîl” (alternative) and “at-ta`kid” (emphasizing). The context of kinesics languages in the Al-Qur'anic stories of Prophet Joseph covers “aqîdah” (belief in One God) and “mu’amâlah” (good in social relationships).

KEY WORDS: Non-Verbal Language; Al-Qur'an; Kinesics Language; Story of Prophet Joseph; Islamic Teaching of Prophet Stories.

About the Author: Asep Sopian, M.Ag. is a Senior Lecturer at the Arabic Education Department, Faculty of Language and Literature Education UPI (Indonesia University of Education), Jalan Dr. Setiabudhi No.229 Bandung 40154, West Java, Indonesia. Corresponding author: asepsopian@upi.edu

Suggested Citation: Sopian, Asep. (2019). “Non-Verbal Language in the Stories of Al-Qur'an” in TAWARIKH: Journal of Historical Studies, Volume 10(2), April, pp.103-120. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press Owned By Aspensi, Issn 2085-0980 (Print).

Article Timeline: Accepted (December 22, 2018); Revised (February 21, 2019); and Published (April 30, 2019).


Keywords


Non-Verbal Language; Al-Qur'an; Kinesics Language; Story of Prophet Joseph; Islamic Teaching of Prophet Stories

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdullah, A.A.A. (2004). “Al-Ittishâl ash-Shâmit wa ‘Amquhut Ta’thiru fi al-‘Âkhorîna fi Dhaw’i al-Qur’ân al-Karîm was Sunnati Nabawiyah” in Majallah Muslim al-Mu’ashr Mishr al-‘Adad, Volume 112, pp.35-36.

Adebiyi, Taofeeq Hamzat et al. (2014). “Communication Elements in the Suratul Yusuf” in Journal Abqari, Vo1ume 4, pp.51-68.

Adib, K. (2010). “Mengenal Sekilas Budaya/Tradisi Masyarakat Arab”. Available online at: http://www.mihrabqolbi.com/artikel/read/0/21/mengenal-sekilas-budayatradisi-masyarakat-arab [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: September 25, 2018].

Afsar, Ayaz. (2006). “Plot Motifs in Joseph/Yusuf Story: A Comparative Study of Biblical and Qur’anic Narrative” in Islamic Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2 (Summer 2006), pp. 167-189. Available online also at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/20839014?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Ajaj, Azar. (2010). “The Joseph Story in the Qur’an and the Bible, and in Muslim and Jewish Tradition”. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Prague: International Baptist Theological Seminary. Available online also at: https://www.academia.edu/1549290/The_Joseph_Story_in_the_Quran_and_the_Bible_and_in_Muslim_and_Jewish_Tradition [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Akrom, Muhammad. (2014). “Analisis Ketampanan Nabi Yusuf dalam Perspektif Semiotika Al-Qur’an” in ARABIYAT: Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Arab dan Kebahasa-Araban, Vol.I, No.2 [Desember], pp.223-236.

al-Azami, M.M. (2003). The History of the Qur'anic Text from Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments. UK [United Kingdom]: Islamic Academy, first edition.

al-Azzawi, S.M., A. Pandian & S.K. al-Saaidi. (2016). “A Semiotic Analysis of the Body Language with Reference to the Facial Expressions in Selected Quranic Verses” in IRA (Institute of Research Advances): International Journal of Education and Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 3, Issue 2 [May]. Available online also at: https://www.academia.edu/25791057/A_Semiotic_Analysis_of_the_Body_Language_With_Reference_to_the_Facial_Expressions_in_Selected_Quranic_Verses [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 28, 2018].

al-Biqa’i, Imam Burhanuddin Abu Hasan Ibrahim ibn Umar. (2002). Nazhamu ad-Dzurar fi Tanasubil Ayati Wassuwar, Juz I-VIII. Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kotob al-Ilmiyah.

al-Halwa, F.A. (2008). “Al-‘Ittishal al-Shamit wa Ta’thîruhu fîy al-‘Âkharîna”. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Bandung: SPs UPI (School of Postgraduate, Indonesia University of Education).

al-Khatib, Mahmoud A. (2012). “Politeness in the Holy Quran: A Sociolinguistic and Pragmatic Perspective” in DE GRUYTER MOUTON: Intercultural Pragmatics, Volume 9(4), pp.479- 509. Available online also at: https://sealinguist.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/al-khatib-2012-politeness-in-the-quran.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

al-Mas’ûd, F.M. (2012). “Al-‘Adâu al-Haraky lish Syakhshiyah fi Qishati ‘Ibrâhîm wa Dhurriyatihi ’Aliahimus Salâm fi al-Qur’âni al-Karîmi” in Majallatu Ummil Qurâ li ‘Ulûmi al-Lughat wa ‘Adâbiha al-‘Adad, Volume 7, pp.64-104.

Alûsy, A.F.M. (n.y.). Rûh al-Ma’âny fi Tafsîri al-Qur’âni al-‘Azhimi was Sab’i al-Mathani, Juz 16. Beirut: Ihyâut Turath.

Amin, Usman. (2008). Filsafat Bahasa Arab. Bandung: PSIBA Press, translated and edited by Wagino Hamid Hamdani & I. Sofjan Taftazani.

Arifin, Zainal. (2017). “Pornography in Al-Qur’an: Analysis of Surah Yusuf in Al-Qur’an” in The Social Sciences, Volume 12(6), pp.959-966. Available online also at: http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/medwelljournals/sscience/2017/959-966.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 10, 2018].

as-Suyuti, Jalal ad-Din ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Abl Bakr. (1967). Al-Ilqanfi 'Ulum al-Qur’an, 4 Volumes. Cairo: n.p. [no publisher], edited by M. Abu al-Fadl Ibrahim.

Baghawy, H.M.F. (1997). Ma’alimut Tanzîl, Volume 8. Al-Madinah al-Munawwarah: Dâr Thayyibah, cetakan ke-4.

Bicchieri, Cristina. (2006). The Grammar of Society: The Nature and Dynamics of Social Norms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Budyatna, M. & L.M. Ganiem. (2012). Teori Komunikasi Antarpribadi. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Cangara, H. (1998). Pengantar Ilmu Komunikasi. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, Translation.

Chu, H. (2015). “Research Methods in Library and Information Science: A Content Analysis” in Library & Information Science Research, Volume 37(1), pp.36‐41.

Damrosch, David. (2014). “Literary Criticism and the Qur’an: Foreword” in Journal of Qur’anic Studies, Volume 16(3), pp.4-10. Available online also at: https://www.academia.edu/15065531/Literary_Criticism_and_the_Quran [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Danesi, Marcel. (2004). Messages, Signs, and Meanings: A Basic Textbook in Semiotics and Communication Theory. Ontario: Canadian Scholars’ Press, Inc., 3rd edition. Available online also at: https://www.academia.edu/24166004/Danesi_messages_signs_and_meanings [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Darrow, William Ronald. (2011). “Recent Trends in Historical and Literary Study of the Qur’ân” in MIQOT, Vol.XXXV, No.1 [Januari-Juni]. Available online also at: https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/156657-EN-recent-trends-in-historical-and-literary.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Delvito, J.A. (2011). Human Communication. New York: Hunter College of the City of New York, thirtheen edition.

Dodson, Aidan & Dyan Hilton. (2004). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson.

Driver, Janine. (2012). You Can’t Lie to Me: The Revolutionary Program to Supercharge Your Inner Lie Detector and Get to the Truth. USA [United States of America]: Janine Driver & the Body Language Institute. Available online also at: https://www.lyintamer.com/wp-content/uploads/Student-Guide-You-Cant-Lie-to-Me.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 5, 2018].

Effendy, O.U. (2003). Ilmu Komunikasi: Teori dan Filsafat Komunikasi. Bandung: PT Citra Aditya Bakti.

Ekman, P. (1982). Emotion in the Human Face. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition.

Fauzi, Nurfaizah & Wan Mohd Khairul Firdaus Wan Khairuldin. (2017). “Human Capital Development for Women Based on the Story of Maryam in the Al-Quran” in International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Vol.7, No.4. Available online also at: http://hrmars.com/hrmars_papers/Human_Capital_Development_for_Women_based_on_the_story_of_Maryam_In_the_al-Quran.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Fidel, Raya. (1993). “Qualitative Methods in Information Retrieval Research” in LISR, Volume 15, pp.219-247. Available online also at: http://faculty.washington.edu/fidelr/RayaPubs/QualitativeMethodsinInformationRetrievalResearch.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 28, 2018].

File, Jr., Thomas M. (2018). “Patient Education: Pneumonia in Adults (Beyond the Basics)”. Available online at: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pneumonia-in-adults-beyond-the-basics [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: January 17, 2019].

Galloway, Sonia D. (2014). “The Impact of Islam as a Religion and Muslim Women on Gender Equality: A Phenomenological Research Study” in Doctoral Dissertation of Nova Southeastern University, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, No.14. Available online also at: http://nsuworks.nova.edu/shss_dcar_etd/14 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 10, 2018].

Gilakjani, A.P. & M.R. Ahmadi (2011). “A Study of Factors Affecting EFL Learners' English Listening Comprehension and the Strategies for Improvement” in Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol.2, No.5 [September], pp.977-988. Available online also at: http://www.academypublication.com/issues/past/jltr/vol02/05/05.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 5, 2018].

Goerling, Fritz. (2010). “Baraka (as Divine Blessing) as a Bridge in Manding Languages (Especially in Jula of Côte d’Ivoire)” in Journal of Translation, Vol.6, No.1, pp.1-9. Available online also at: https://www.sil.org/system/files/reapdata/65/16/72/65167200952039867091971486048063389306/siljot2010_1_01.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 5, 2018].

Grace, M., D. Kivlighan & J. Kunce. (1995). “The Effect of Nonverbal Skills Training on Counselor Trainee Nonverbal Sensitivity and Responsiveness and on Session Impact and Working Alliance Ratings” in Journal of Counseling & Development, Volume 73(5), pp.547-552.

Gulen, Fethullah. (2012). “Certainly, She was Burning wirh Desire for Him (Joseph) … (Yusuf, 12:24)”. Available online at: https://fgulen.com/en/fethullah-gulens-works/343-reflections-on-the-quran/surah-yusuf-joseph/14067-yusuf-12-24 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Gulen, Fethullah. (2013). “(Solomon) Smiled at Her (the Ant’s) Words (An-Naml, 27:19)”. Available online also at: https://fgulen.com/en/fethullah-gulens-works/faith/fethullah-gulen-reflections-on-the-quran/1585-suratun-naml-the-ant/33923-an-naml-27-19 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 5, 2018].

Gusmian, Islah. (2017). The Dynamics of the Qur’anic Interpretation in Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Salwa. Available online also at: http://eprints.iain-surakarta.ac.id/3710/1/buku_the%20dinamics [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Halim, Asyiqin Ab. (2016). “Quranic Stories in Introducing Messages and Values: An Analysis on the Story of Prophet Yusuf A.S.” in Jurnal al-Tamaddun, Bilangan 11(2), pp.59-66. Available online also at: https://umexpert.um.edu.my/file/publication/00009468_133450.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Halton, E. (2004). “The Living Gesture and the Signifying Moment” in Symbolic Interaction, Vol.27, No.1 [Winter], pp.89-113. Available online also at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/si.2004.27.1.89 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: January 1, 2018].

Hans, Anjali & Emmanuel Hans. (2015). “Kinesics, Haptics and Proxemics: Aspects of Non-Verbal Communication” in IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), Volume 20, Issue 2 [February], pp.47-52. Available online also at: http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jhss/papers/Vol20-issue2/Version-4/H020244752.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 17, 2018].

Hickson, M. (2010). Nonverbal Communication: Studies and Applications. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hidayatullah, M.S. (2017). “Bahasa Komunikasi Non-Verbal: Pengirim Pesan Tanpa Kata”. Available online at: http://www.repository.uinjkt.ac.id/.../Bahasa [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: September 25, 2018].

Hossain, F.M. Anayet & Md Korban Ali. (2014). “Relation between Individual and Society” in Open Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.02, No.08. Available online also at: http://file.scirp.org/Html/8-1760197_49227.htm [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 5, 2018].

Hussain, Mohammed Mehboob. (2017). Islamic Sciences: An Analytical Study of Science in the Light of Qur’anic Verses. Hyderabad: An Islamic Research & Propagation Academy. Available online also at: https://www.academia.edu/6450807/Quran_and_Science_Analytic_work [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Hybels, S. & R.L. Weaver. (1992). Communicating Effectively. USA [United States of America]: McGraw-Hills, Inc., 3rd edition.

Imron, Ali. (2011). Semiotika Al-Quran: Metode dan Aplikasi terhadap Kisah Yusuf. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Teras.

Ishola, Abdulkabeer. (2018). “10 Life Lessons from the Beautiful Story of Prophet Yusuf (A.S.)” in Jumah Nugget, on October 26. Available online also at: https://medium.com/jumah-nugget/10-life-lessons-from-the-beautiful-story-of-prophet-yusuf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: January 7, 2019].

Jardim, Georgina L. (2008). “‘She Who Disputes’: A Qur'anic Precedent for Sacral Interlocution”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Cheltenham: Faculty of Humanities, University of Gloucestershire. Available online also at: http://eprints.glos.ac.uk/3172/1/479019.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 10, 2018].

Johns, Anthony H. (1999). “‘She Desired Him and He Desired Her’ (Qur'an, 12:24): ‘Abd al-Ra'ûf's Treatment of an Episode of the Joseph Story in Tarjumân al-Mustafîd” in Archipel, Volume 57, pp.109-134. Available online also at: https://www.persee.fr/doc/arch_0044-8613_1999_num_57_2_3520 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Jones, S.E. & C.D. LeBaron. (2002). “Research on the Relationship between Verbal and Nonverbal Communication: Emerging Integrations” in Journal of Communication, Edition of September, pp.499-521. Available online also at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.535.49&rep=rep1&type=pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 28, 2018].

Kaltner, John. (2017). “Joseph in the Qur’an” in Bible Odyssey. Available online also at: https://www.bibleodyssey.org/en/people/related-articles/joseph-in-the-quran [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Kathir, Imaduddin Abu al-Fida Isma’il Ibnu. (2014). Kisah para Nabi. Jakarta: Pustaka Azzam, cetakan xxiv, translated by M. Abdul Ghoffar.

Kendom, A. (1997). “Gesture” in Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 26, pp.109-128. Available online also at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2952517 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: June 3, 2018].

Khan, Muhammad Muhsin & Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali. (1995). Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Qur'an in the English Language. Saudi Arabia and Pakistan: Dar us-Salam Publications.

Kirby, G.R., J.R. Goodpaster & M. Levine. (2002). Critical Thinking. Boston: Pearson Publishing House.

Knapp, M.L. & J.A. Hall. (2010). Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Lapakko, D. (2007). “Communication is 93% Nonverbal: An Urban Legend Proliferates” in Communication and Theater Association of Minnesota Journal, Volume 34, pp.7-19. Available online also at: https://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=ctamj [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Lucas, Amy. (2008). “The Importance of Verbal & Non-Verbal Communication”. Available online at: https://www.livestrong.com/article/156961-the-importance-of-verbal-non-verbal-communication/ [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Lustig, M.W. & J. Koester. (2010). Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Marranci, Gabriele [ed]. (2014). Studying Islam in Practice. London and New York: Routledge. Available online also at: http://opac.lib.idu.ac.id/unhan-ebook/assets/uploads/files/6e996-136.studying-islam-in-practice.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 28, 2018].

Mariska, Michael A. & Laura K. Harrawood. (2013). “Understanding the Unsaid: Enhancing Multicultural Competence Through Nonverbal Awareness” in VISTAS: Ideas and Research You Can Use. Available online also at: https://www.counseling.org/docs/default-source/vistas/understanding-the-unsaid-enhancing-multicultural.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Matthews, Victor H. (2017). “Joseph and His Clothing” in Bible Odyssey. Available online also at: https://www.bibleodyssey.org/en/people/related-articles/joseph-and-his-clothing [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Maula, Aizul. (2011). “A Metaphor Translation of the Holy Qur’an: A Comparative Analytical Study”. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. Jakarta: Letters and Humanities Faculty UIN (State Islamic University) Syarif Hidayatullah. Available online also at: http://repository.uinjkt.ac.id/dspace/bitstream/123456789/380/1/102166-AIZUL%20MAULA-FAH.PDF [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Mawadda, Safriani Ulfa. (2016). “Commissive Utterances in the Translation of Holy Quran Chapter Joseph: A Pragmatics Perspective”. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. Department of English Education, School of Teacher Training and Education, Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. Available online also at: http://eprints.ums.ac.id/48148/11/publication%20article.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Mehrabian, A. (2007). Nonverbal Communication. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Aldine Transaction.

Merguerian, G.K. & A. Najmabadi. (1997). “Zulaykha and Yusuf: Whose ‘Best Story’?” in International Journal of Middle East Studies, Volume 29(4), pp.485-508.

Mir, Mustansir. (1986). “The Qur'ānic Story of Joseph: Plot, Themes, and Characters” in The Muslim World, Vol.LXXVI, No.1, pp.1-15. Available online also at: https://www.islamic-awareness.org/quran/q_studies/mirjoseph [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Mohseni, Tahereh. (2014). “The Comparative Study of Qur’an Interpretation & Classic Hermeneutics” in International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol.5, No.1 [August]. Available online also at: http://ijbssnet.com/journals/Vol_5_No_9_1_August_2014/16.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 28, 2018].

Morris, Desmond. (2002). People-Watching: The Desmond Morris Guide to Body Language. London: Vintage.

Muhammad, A.H. (2011). “Translating Body Language Expressions in the Glorious Qur'an into English a Semiotic Study” in College of Basic Education Researchers Journal, Volume 10.

Muhammad, Amin. (1980). Al-Lughat al-‘Arabiyyah Ma’naha wa Mabnaha. Mesir: Dar el-Fiqr.

Mulyana, D. (2002). Ilmu Komunikasi: Suatu Pengantar. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Mursyid, Ali & Zidna Khaira Amalia. (2016). “Benarkah Yusuf dan Zulaikha Menikah? Analisa Riwayat Isra’iliyyat dalam Kitab Tafsir” in WAWASAN: Jurnal Ilmiah Agama dan Sosial-Budaya, Volume 1(1), Januari, pp.94-115.

Musdianti, Rita. (2018). “Nilai-nilai Pendidikan Karakter dalam Kisah Nabi Yusuf AS: Telaah Tafsir Al-Azhar Karya HAMKA”. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Yogyakarta: Program Pascasarjana, Fakultas Ilmu Agama Islam UII [Universitas Islam Indonesia]. Available online also at: https://dspace.uii.ac.id/bitstream/handle/123456789/12512/tesis [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: January 7, 2019].

Panjaitan, Tetti Nauli et al. (2017). “Interaction of Verbal Communication of the Teacher from the Philippines in the Teaching Activity for Nursery II Students at the Singapore International School, Medan” in International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, Volume 6, Issue 07 [July]. Available online also at: http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/july2017/Interaction-Of-Verbal-Communication-Of-The-Teacher [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 5, 2018].

Pembayun, Ellys Lestari. (2012). Communication Quotient: Kecerdasan Komunikasi dalam Pendekatan Emosional dan Spiritual. Bandung: Penerbit Rosda.

Plumb, Michael D. (2013). “Non-Verbal Communication in Instant Messaging”. Unpublished M.A. Thesis. USA [United States of America]: Southern Utah University. Available online also at: https://www.suu.edu/hss/comm/masters/capstone/thesis/plumb-mi.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 28, 2018].

Qalyubi, S. (2009). Stilistika Al-Qur’an: Makna di Balik Kisah Ibrahim. Yogyakarta: Penerbit LKiS.

Qutb, Sayyid. (n.y.). At-Tashwîr al-Fanny fi al-Qur’ân. Kairo: Dâr al-Ma’ârif.

Qutb, Sayyid. (2003). Tafsir fi Zilal al-Qur’an: Surah Maryam 19. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press, Translation.

Rakhmat, J. (2004). Psikologi Komunikasi. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Rubaya’ah, U.J.A. (2010). “Lughatu al-Jasadi fi al-Qur’ân: Al-Athruhah” in Filistini: Jami’atun Najâh al-WathAniyah Kulliyatud Dirâsât al-‘Ulyâ, Special Issue.

Saeed, Mahmood Shakir. (2017). “A Model for a Muslim Youth in the Story of Joseph (Yusuf) Peace be Upon Him”. Available online at: https://www.slideshare.net/blue100sky/a-model-for-a-muslim-youth-in-the-story-of-joseph [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Sahib, Hajah Muzdalifah. (2011). “Western and Islamic Cultures on the Use of Non-Verbal Polite Expressions: A Cross-Cultural Understanding” in Sulesana, Vol.6, No.2, pp.36-45.

Scholes, R. (1982). Semiotics and Interpretation. New York: Yale University Press.

Senel, M. (2007). “The Semiotic Approach and Language Teaching and Learning” in Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, Volume 3(1), pp.117-132.

Senowarsito, Sri Samiati Tarjana & Joko Nurkamto. (2016). “Politeness of Non-Verbal Interaction in EFL Classrooms”. Paper for an International Seminar on Prasasti III: Current Research in Linguistics.

Sense, Iqra. (2014). Inspirations from the Quran: Selected Duas, Verses, and Surahs from the Quran Includes Select Commentary, Tafsir, and Reasons for Revelation. n.c. [no city]: Create Space Independent Publishing Platform.

Shihab, M. Qurasih. (2002). Tafsîr Al-Misbâh: Pesan, Kesan, dan Keserasian Alquran, Volume 2. Jakarta: Lentera Hati, cetakan ke-5.

Shihab, M. Qurasih. (2005). Tafsir al-Misbah: Pesan, Kesan, dan Keserasian Alquran, Volume 6. Jakarta: Lentera Hati.

Skinner, Quentin. (1975). “Hermeneutics and the Role of History” in New Literary History, Vol.7, No.1 [Autumn], pp.209-232. Available online also at: https://www2.southeastern.edu/Academics/Faculty/jbell/skinner.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 28, 2018].

Sobur, A. (2013). Filsafat Komunikasi: Tradisi dan Metode Fenomenologi. Bandung: Penerbit Rosda.

Sutiyatno, Sukris. (2018). “The Effect of Teacher’s Verbal Communication and Non-verbal Communication on Students’ English Achievement” in Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol.9, No.2 [March], pp.430-437.

Sutoyo, Anwar. (2014). “Human Dimension in the Perspective of the Holy Quran” in International Journal of Education, Vol.7, No.2 [May], pp.71-83.

Syihabuddin. (2005). Penerjemahan Arab–Indonesia: Teori dan Praktik. Bandung: Penerbit Humaniora.

Thahir, A. Halil. (2019). Ijtihad Maqaṣidi: The Interconnected Maṣlaḥah-Based Reconstruction of Islamic Laws. Geneva: Globethics.net. Available online also at: https://www.globethics.net/documents/4289936/13403260/GE_Theses_30_isbn9782889312207.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: February 9, 2019].

‘Umair, K.F. & R. Dumair. (2013). “Taudhifu al-Lughatish Shâmit fit Ta’bîr al-Qur’âni” in Canakkale Onsekiz Mart Universites Illahiyat Fakultesi Dergis, Cilt 2, Sayi 2, pp.9-46.

Vlieger, Esther & Loet Leydesdorff. (2011). “Content Analysis and the Measurement of Meaning: The Visualization of Frames in Collections of Messages” in The Public Journal of Semiotics, Volume III(1), June. Available online also at: https://www.leydesdorff.net/semiotics/semiotics.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 28, 2018].

Wigham, Ciara R. (2012). “The Interplay between Nonverbal and Verbal Interaction in Synthetic Worlds which Supports Verbal Participation and Production in a Foreign Language” in HAL: Archives-Ouvertes. Available online also at: https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00762382v2/document [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 5, 2018].

Yunus, S.Z. bin. (2015). “Lughah al-Jasad fi al-Qur’ân: Muqârabah Sîmiyulujiyah li Harakatai al-‘Ain wa al-Yad” in Majallah al-‘Insâniyyah Mujallad Bâ’, Volume 43, pp.203-205.

Zamakhshary, A.M.Q.M.U. (n.y.). Al-Kasysyâf ‘an Haqâiqi al-Tanzîl wa ‘Uyuni al-Aqâwîl fi Wujuhit Ta’wîl, Volume 1. Beirut: Dâr ‘Ihyâit Turâtsi al-‘Araby.

Zarqâny. (n.y.). Manâhi al-‘Irfân, Juz 2. Kairo: ‘Isa al-Bâbi al-Halibi wa Shurakâush.

Zed, Mestika. (2004). Metode Penelitian Kepustakaan. Jakarta: Penerbit YOI [Yayasan Obor Indonesia].

Zvi, Ehud Ben. (2003). The Signs of Jonah: Reading and Rereading in Ancient Yehud. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press.

Zwozdiak-Myers, P. & S. Capel. (2005). Communicating with Pupils Nonverbally. London: Longman.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
TAWARIKH: Journal of Historical Studies. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

 

View My Stats