Dar al-Ulum of Deoband: An Education, Propagation, and Islamic Political Movement in India

Syafiq A Mughni, Ahmad Firdausi, Akmaliyah Akmaliyah

Abstract


ABSTRACT: This paper, by using the historical method, qualitative approach, and literature review, describes the history of Dar al-Ulum (House of Sciences) of Deoband in its role and development as an educational, propagation, and political movement of Islam in India. The movement was brought to life from the awareness in the side of the Mughal kingdom in the wake of Islamic decline in the midst of the British colonialism and the Muslim-Hindu conflicts. The figure in focus, especially in the related history of renewing Islamic thought, is Shah Waliyyullah. In Shah Waliyyullah’s thoughts, there are several salient aspects responsible for making the sublime teachings of Islam turn to bad shape, including the change of the system of government or the Caliphate into an absolute monarchy system; the divisions among Muslims; and blind imitation (taqlīd) to the interpretations of the past generation of ‘ulamā (Islamic scholars). Shah Waliyyullah's successor, Sayyid Ahmad Shahid, founded the “Mujahidin” (Struggle) movement. Upon its subsequent spread of popularity among people, this movement finally split into two groups: the first one preferred jihād physically, while another jihād in intellectual form or through thought. The last-mentioned group was under the command of Mawlana Muhammad Qasim, Maulana Muhammad Iqbal, and Maulana Muhammad Ishaq. They realized their movement’s aspirations by establishing the Madrasah (Islamic modern school) Dar al-Ulum of Deoband. This madrasah produced ‘ulamā, who were aware of the Indian Muslims’ life that they should master knowledge and technology to the farthest extend in order to become solid and undivided. In its development, Dar al-Ulum of Deoband has not only been the most important traditional educational institution in India, but also has played a significant role in Islamic propagation and political so influential a movement promoting composite nationalism and representing the interest of Indian Muslims.

KEY WORDS: Madrasah of Deoband; Islamic Education; Propagation and Politics; Indian Muslims.

   

About the Authors: Prof. Dr. Syafiq A. Mughni is a Professor at the Faculty of Adab and Humanities UIN (State Islamic University) Sunan Ampel, Jalan A. Yani No.117 Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. Ahmad Firdausi, M.Fil.I. is a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Dakwah and Communication UIN Sunan Ampel in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. Dr. Akmaliyah is a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Adab and Humanities UIN Sunan Gunung Djati, Jalan A.H. Nasution No.105 Cipadung, Bandung 40614, West Java, Indonesia. Corresponding authors: mughni54@gmail.com, ahmadfirdausi.af@gmail.com, and akmaliyah@uinsgd.ac.id

Suggested Citation: Mughni, Syafiq A., Ahmad Firdausi & Akmaliyah. (2019). “Dar al-Ulum of Deoband: An Education, Propagation, and Islamic Political Movement in India” in TAWARIKH: Journal of Historical Studies, Volume 10(2), April, pp.87-102. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press owned by ASPENSI, ISSN 2085-0980 (print).

Article Timeline: Accepted (November 10, 2018); Revised (January 15, 2019); and Published (April 30, 2019). 

Keywords


Madrasah of Deoband; Islamic Education; Propagation and Politics; Indian Muslims

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbas, Mohammad. (2015). “Shah Waliullah and Moderation” in Islamic Research Foundation International, on April 5.

Ajahari. (2016). “Pemikiran Fazlur Rahman dan Muhammad Arkoun” in Jurnal Studi Agama dan Masyarakat, Vol.12, No.2 [December].

Alam, Anwar. (2007). “Political Management of Islamic Fundamentalism: A View from India” in Ethnicities, Volume 7(1), pp.30-60. Available online also at: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00571873/document [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 24, 2018].

Ali, Mohamed bin. (2012). “The Islamic Doctrine of Al-Wala’ wal Bara’ (Loyalty and Disavowal) in Modern Salafism”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. UK [United Kingdom]: University of Exeter. Available online also at: https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10871/9181/AliM.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 24, 2018].

Amirudin, M. Hasbi. (2000). Konsep Negara Menurut Fazlur Rahman. Yogyakarta: UII [Universitas Islam Indonesia] Press, edisi ke-1, Introduction by Deliar Noer.

Anwar, Rasihan. (1979). Ajaran dan Sejarah Islam untuk Anda. Jakarta: PT Dunia Pustaka Jaya.

Avari, Burjor. (2013). Islamic civilization in South Asia: A History of Muslim Power and Presence in the Indian Subcontinent. London and New York: Routledge. Available online also at: http://opac-caknur.fah.uinjkt.ac.id/repository/EB17444.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 24, 2018].

Bashir, Aamir. (2013). Shari'at and Tariqat: A Study of the Deobandi Understanding and Practice of Tasawwuf. New Delhi: Dar al-Sa'adah Publications.

Brannon, Ingram. (2017). “Sufis, Scholars, and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and the Deobandi Critique of Sufism” in Academia, on December 24. Available online also at: https://www.academia.edu/282790/Sufism_Scholars_and_Scapegoats [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Chandra, Bipan et al. (2017). India’s Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. India: Penguin Books. Available online also at: http://www.mentorstudypoint.in/downloads/(Bipan_Chandra.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 10, 2018].

Dasgupta, Ananya. (2013). “Labors of Representation: Cultivating Land, Self, and Community among Muslims in Late Colonial Bengal” in Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations, No.849. Available online also at: http://repository.upenn.edu/edissertations/849 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 24, 2018].

Dhulipala, Venkat. (2017). “How the Jamiat Ulamā’-I Hind Fought Against Partition of India”. Available online at: http://www.caravanmagazine.in/vantage/madani-jinnah-muslim-league-partition [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 9, 2018].

Eraly, Abraham. (2007). The Mughal World : Life in India's Last Golden Age. London: Penguin Books.

Freedman, Ilana. (2016). Gateway to Jihad: Tablighi Jama’at. USA [United States of America]: The Center for Security Policy Press. Available online also at: https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/GatewayToJihad.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Gibb, H.A.R. (1952). Aliran-aliran Modern dalam Islam. Djakarta: Penerbit Tintamas, Translation.

Gopal, Ram. (1964). Indian Muslim: A Political History. Bombay: Asia Publishing House.

Gupta, Amit Kumar. (1997). “Defying Death: Nationalist Revolutionism in India, 1897-1938” in Social Scientist, Vol.25, No.9/10 [September-October], pp.3-27. Available online also at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3517678?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 10, 2018].

HAMKA [Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah]. (1975). Sejarah Ummat Islam, Jilid III. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.

Haqqani, Husain. (2006). “India’s Islamist Groups” in H. Fradkin, H. Haqqani & E. Brown [eds]. Current Trends in Islamist Ideology. Washington, D.C.: Hudson Institute, Inc., pp.10-23. Available online also at: https://www.hudson.org/content/researchattachments/attachment/1357/current_trends_vol_3.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 24, 2018].

Hashmi, Arshi Saleem. (2014). “The Deobandi Madrassas in India and Their Elusion of Jihadi Politics: Lessons for Pakistan”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Islamabad, Pakistan: The SPIR [School of Politics and International Relations], Quaid-e-Azam University. Available online also at: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/bitstream/123456789/887/1/1909S.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Hermansen, M. (1986). “Shah Wali Allah of Delhi’s Hujjat Allah al-Baligha: Tension between the Universal and the Particular in an 18th Century Islamic Theory of Religious Revelation” in Studia Islamica, Volume 63, pp.143-57.

Husain, Samir. (2018). “Madrassas: The Evolution (or Devolution?) of the Islamic Schools in South Asia (1857-Present)”. Unpublished Honors Thesis. India: History Department, Oberlin College.

Ingram, Brannon D. (2011). “Deobandis Abroad: Sufism, Ethics, and Polemics in a Global Islamic Movement”. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Chapel Hill: Department of Religious Studies, University of North Carolina. Available online also at: https://cdr.lib.unc.edu/indexablecontent/uuid:32c2fa2b [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Irfa, Emi. (2015). “The Concept of Battle Againts Non-Muslim in the Holy Qur’an: Application of Fazlur Rahman’s Double Movement Method”. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. Semarang, Indonesia: Special Program of Ushuluddin Faculty, UIN [Universitas Islam Negeri] Walisongo. Available online also at: http://eprints.walisongo.ac.id/4401/1/104211019.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Islahi, Abdul Azim. (2009). “Islamic Economic Thinking in the 12th AH/18th CE Century with Special Reference to Shah Wali-Allah al-Dihlawi” in MPRA: Munich Personal RePEc Archive, No.75432. Available online also at: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/75432/1/MPRA_paper_75432.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 9, 2018].

Jackson, William Kesler. (2013). “A Subcontinent's Sunni Schism: The Deobandi-Barelvi Rivalry and the Creation of Modern South Asia” in History Dissertations, Paper 102. Available online also at: https://surface.syr.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1101&context=hst_etd [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Jalal, Ayesha. (2008). Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Jameelah, Maryam. (1993). Para Mujahid Agung. Bandung: Penerbit Mizan, Translation.

“Jamiat Ulama I Karnataka”. Available at: https://jamiatulamakarnataka.wordpress.com [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 9, 2018].

Jan, Najeeb A. (2010). “The Metacolonial State: Pakistan, the Deoband ‘Ulama, and the Biopolitics of Islam”. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. USA [United States of America]: The University of Michigan. Available online also at: https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/75807/janna_1.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Janbozorgi, Ali. (2005). “Political System of Islam and its Relevance in Modern Times”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Augarh, India: Department of Theology, Augarh Muslim University. Available online also at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/144509985.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 1, 2018].

Jesson, J., L. Matheson & F.M. Lacey. (2011). Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques. Los Angeles and London: SAGE Publications.

Kamran, Tahir. (2017). “Evolution and Impact of ‘Deobandi’ Islam in the Punjab”. Available online at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d070/caa5cf82dbc891c6ad61c2375234400a3062.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 10, 2018].

Kemal, R. & S. Kemal. (1996). “Shah Waliullah” in S.H. Nasr & O. Leaman [eds]. History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Routledge, pp.663-670.

Khan, Bashir Ahmad. (1987). “Ahl al-Hadith Movement in Northern India, 1857-1947 AD”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Srinagar: Post-Graduate Department of History, University of Kashmir. Available online also at: https://archive.org/stream/AhlAlHadithMovementInNorthernIndia18571947A.DBashirAhmadKhan [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Khan, Refaqat Ali. (1975). “Muslim in Medival India: A Historical Sketch” in Zafar Imam [ed]. Muslim in India. New Delhi: Orient Longman.

Kokab, Rizwan Ullah. (2015). “Muslim Revivalist Movements in Mughal India: Concept and History” in JRSP: Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, Vol.51, No.2. Available online at: https://www.academia.edu/37741610/MUSLIM_REVIVALIST_MOVEMENTS_IN_MUGHAL_INDIA_CONCEPT_AND_HISTORY [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Kunju, Saifudheen S. (2017). “Shah Waliullah al-Dehlawi: Thoughts and Contributions”. Available online at: https://www.academia.edu/592790/SHAH_WALIULLAH_AL-DEHLAWI_THOUGHTS_AND_CONTRIBUTIONS [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 9, 2018].

Lal, K.S. (1973). Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India, A.D. 1000-1800. New Delhi: Voice of India.

LoC [Library of Congress]. (2011). “The History of Ancient India” in Ancient History Encyclopedia, on December 15. Available online also at: https://www.ancient.eu/article/294/the-history-of-ancient-india/ [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 1, 2018].

McLeod, John. (2002). The History of India. London: Greenwood Press.

Metcalf, Barbara D. (1982). Islamic Revival in British India: Deoband, 1860-1900. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Metcalf, Barbara D. (2002). “Traditionalist Islamic Activism: Deoband, Tablighis, and Talibs” in ISIM Working 10 Papers, No.4.

Miftahi, Mufti Muhammad Zafiruddin. (2012). Dar al-’Ulum Deoband: A Brief Account of its Establishment and Background. Johannesburg, South Africa: Imam Gangohi Academy of Research Friends of Deoband. Available online also at: http://www.darululoom-deoband.com/urdu/books/tmp [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 24, 2018].

Minault, Gail. (1982). The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India. USA [United States of America]: Columbia University Press.

Moj, Muhammad. (2015). The Deoband Madrassah Movement: Countercultural Trends and Tendencies. New Delhi: Anthem Press.

Mukhia, Harbans. (2004). The Mughals of India. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Mulia, T.S.G. (1952). India: Sedjarah Politik dan Pergerakan Kebangsaan. Djakarta: Penerbit Balai Pustaka.

Musa, Aisha Y. (2008). Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam. New York: Palgrave.

Nadwi, Maulana Syed Abul Hasan Ali. (1974). Life Sketch of Syed Ahmed Shahid. Lucknow, India: Zia Publications. Available online also at: https://islamiclegacy.files.wordpress.com/2018/07/life-sketch-of-syed-ahmad-shahid.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 24, 2018].

Nadwi, Syed Abdul Hasan Ali. (2004). Saviours of Islamic Spirit, Volume 4. Lukhnow, India: Islamic Research and Publications. Available online also at: http://www.dankalia.com/islam/isl401.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Nasution, Harun. (1986). Islam Ditinjau dari Berbagai Aspeknya. Jakarta: UI [Universitas Indonesia] Press.

Nasution, Harun. (1996). Pembaharuan dalam Islam: Sejarah, Pemikiran, dan Gerakan. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.

Noor, Faris A., Yoginder Sikand & Martin van Bruinessen [eds]. (2008). The Madrasa in Asia: Political Activism and Transnational Linkages. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Pandian, Arjunan. (2017). “Ancient India”. Available online at: https://www.academia.edu/36101509/ANCIENT_INDIA_APN.docx [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 1, 2018].

Pandya, Amit A. (2010). Muslim Indians: Struggle for Inclusion. New Delhi: Stimson.

Qureshi, Hasan M. Zulfiqar. (2015). “Muslim Revivalism in 19th Century India” in St. Cross College, Oxford Essay, No.4 [February]. Available online also at: www.scribd.com/document/344622107 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 1, 2018].

Racius, Egdunas. (2004). “The Multiple Nature of the Islamic Da‘wa”. Unpublished Academic Dissertation. Finland: Faculty of Arts, University of Helsinki. Available online also at: http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/hum/aasia/vk/racius/themulti.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Rahman, Fazlur. (1982). Islam and Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Rahman, Mahfuzur. (2015). “The Rise and Spread of Islam in Indian Subcontinent, 711-1526 AD”. Available online at: https://www.academia.edu/37025648/THE_RISE_AND_SPREAD_OF_ISLAM_IN_INDIAN_SUBCONTINENT_711-1526_A.D [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 1, 2018].

Rahman, Md Mahboobur. (1994). “Muslim Religio-Reform Movements in Bengal during the Nineteenth Century”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Aligarh, India: Department of Sunni Theology, Aligarh Muslim University. Available online also at: http://ir.amu.ac.in/3332/1/T%204647.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 24, 2018].

Ramzan, Shazia & Ainee Rabab. (2013). “Darul Uloom Deoband: Its Evolution in 19th Century British India and Impact on the System of Education in Pakistan” in FWU: Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.7, No.2 [Winter].

Reetz, Dietrich. (2004). “Keeping Busy on the Path of Allah: The Self-Organisation (Intizam) of the Tablighi Jama'at” in Oriente Moderno, Volume 84(1), pp.295-305.

Rizvi, Saiyid Athar Abbas. (1982). Shah Abd al-Zaiz: Puritanism, Sectarian, Polemics, and Jihad. Canberra, Australia: Ma’rifat Publishing House. Available online also at: https://archive.org/stream/ShahAbdulAzizSAARizvi [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 17, 2018].

Schimmel, Annemarie. (1980). Islam in the Indian Subcontinent. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Schleifer, S. Abdallah et al. [eds]. (2011). The Muslim 500: The 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman, Jordan: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Center. Available online also at: http://qismat.org/pdf/2011-muslim-500.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Shah, Syed Subtain Hussain. (2018). “Religious Education and Extremism in Pakistan: From Deobandi Militancy to a Rising Sufi Fanaticism” in Journal of Education, Culture, and Society, Vol.1, No.1, pp.11-26.

Shani, Giorgio. (2005). “Indigenous Modernities: Nationalism and Communalism in Colonial India” in Ritsumeikan Annual Review of International Studies, Volume 4, pp.87-112. Available online also at: http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/ir/college/bulletin/e-vol4/shani.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 1, 2018].

Shireen, Syeda Lubna. (2017). A Study of Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind with Special Reference to Hussain Ahmed Madani in Freedom Movement, 1919-1947 AD. Aurangabad: Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University.

Sidat, Haroon. (2018). “Between Tradition and Transition: An Islamic Seminary, or Dar al-Uloom in Modern Britain” in Religion, Volume 9(10). Available online also at: https://www.mdpi.com/2077-1444/9/10/314/htm [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 3, 2018].

Singh, David Emmanuel. (2012). Islamization in Modern South Asia. Boston/Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, Inc.

Singh, David Emmanuel. (2015). “The Independent Madrasas of India: Dar al-‘Ulum, Deoband and Nadwat al-Ulamā’, Lucknow”. Available online also at: www.ocms.ac.uk/docs/madrasas_deoband.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 9, 2018].

Sjamsuddin, Helius. (2007). Metodologi Sejarah. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Ombak.

Stoddard, Lothrop. (1996). Dunia Baru Islam. Jakarta: Penerbit Panitiya, Translation.

Sudarsono, Munir. (1994). Aliran Modern dalam Islam. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Sulaiman, Setyadi. (2008). “Kajian Kontemporer atas Dinamika Madrasah di Dunia Islam” in Studia lslamika, Vol.15, No.3, pp.541-545.

Sutton, J. & Z. Austin. (2015). “Qualitative Research: Data Collection, Analysis, and Management” in The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, Volume 68(3), May-June, pp.226-231. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4485510/ [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 1, 2018].

Syros, Vasileios. (2012). “An Early Modern South Asian Thinker on the Rise and Decline of Empires: Shah Wali-Allah of Delhi, the Mughals, and the Byzantines” in Journal of World History, Vol.23, No.4 [December], pp.793-840. Available online also at: http://roosevelt.ucsd.edu/_files/mmw/mmw13/ShahWaliAllahtheMughalsandtheByzantines20141.pdf [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 9, 2018].

Tabassum, F. (2007). Deoband Ulema's Movement for the Freedom of India. New Delhi: Jamiat Ulama i-Hind.

“The Chain of Credentials of the Great Savants of Darul Uloom”. Available online also at: http://darululoom-deoband.com/english/introulema/greatsavants.htm [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 1, 2018].

Truschke, Audrey. (2017). Aurangzeb: The Life and Legacy of India's Most Controversial King. USA [United States of America]: Stanford University Press.

Upadhyay, R. (2003). “Jami’at ul-Ulama i-Hind: Basically a Movement for Religious Nationalism” in South Asia Analysis Group, on January 17. Available online also at: http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/paper586 [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: November 10, 2018].

www.darululoom-deoband.com [accessed in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia: October 1, 2018].

Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. USA [United States of America]: Princeton University Press.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
TAWARIKH: Journal of Historical Studies. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

 

View My Stats